The American Scholar: A Declaration of Intellectual Independence

Written by on July 14, 2010 in Basics Of Self Education - 17 Comments

“The scholar is that man who must take up into himself all the ability of the time, all the contributions of the past, all the hopes of the future. He must be a university of knowledges. If there be one lesson more than another, which should pierce his ear, it is, The world is nothing, the man is all; in yourself is the law of all nature, and you know not yet how a globule of sap ascends; in yourself slumbers the whole of Reason; it is for you to know all, it is for you to dare all.” –Ralph Waldo Emerson

Just 61 years after the Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, Ralph Waldo Emerson offered a declaration of his own urging Americans to stop being “parrot[s] of other men’s thinking.”

The groundbreaking speech, later titled The American Scholar, is a treasure trove of autodidactic insight. If you’ve never read it, I heartily suggest that you take a look at the complete manuscript online, print out a copy, and get your highlighter ready. This one is a classic!

In his speech, Emerson draws attention to three ways that people can become independent thinkers and free themselves from over-reliance upon the ideas of others. In a nutshell, we must: learn from nature, study the past, and become people of action.

Learn from Nature

Emerson suggests that we need to learn from nature not simply for its own sake, but because learning about nature helps us understand ourselves:

“Its beauty is the beauty of his own mind. Its laws are the laws of his own mind. Nature then becomes to him the measure of his attainments. So much of nature as he is ignorant of, so much of his own mind does he not yet possess. And, in fine, the ancient precept, “Know thyself,” and the modern precept, “Study nature,” become at last one maxim.”

As a bookworm, this is something that I didn’t understand for years. But, as I’ve recently ventured out to hike in the woods, plant a garden, and ride my bicycle, I have found that my understanding of myself and other concepts has increased in ways that simply weren’t possible from spending hours in front of a computer screen or curled up with a book.

Study the Past

Don’t chuck those paperbacks out the window quite yet, though. Emerson certainly realizes the importance of book learning. In The American Scholar, learning about the past is one of the essential steps of become an independent thinker.

How can we know who we are, where we came from, and where we can go if we don’t study the past?

Emerson suggests that we read the best of books, enjoy poetry, immerse ourselves in science, and master history. Studying the thinkers of the past can help us learn how to form our own ideas.

At the same time, we must always keep in mind the danger of becoming a slave to the ideas of others:

“Books are the best of things, well used; abused, among the worst. What is the right use? What is the one end, which all means go to effect? They are for nothing but to inspire. I had better never see a book, than to be warped by its attraction clean out of my own orbit, and made a satellite instead of a system.”

Let the ideas of the past guide your own thinking, not become a substitute for your own thinking.

Be a Person of Action

In previous posts, I’ve discussed the revival of valuing practical learning and action. It turns out that nineteenth century thinkers were already dealing with the issue of non-practical, abstract learning and trying to find ways to connect scholars to the real world.

Emerson explains:

“Action is with the scholar subordinate, but it is essential. Without it, he is not yet man. Without it, thought can never ripen into truth. Whilst the world hangs before the eye as a cloud of beauty, we cannot even see its beauty. Inaction is cowardice, but there can be no scholar without the heroic mind. The preamble of thought, the transition through which it passes from the unconscious to the conscious, is action. Only so much do I know, as I have lived. Instantly we know whose words are loaded with life, and whose not.”

I love that last line, in particular. As a learner, I could always tell when a teacher knew what they were talking about from their own experiences or when a teacher only understood a subject based on shallow theories and assumptions.

Acting without insight and knowledge is meaningless. But, what’s the point of knowing anything if it isn’t put to use? Through action our wisdom “ripens” and we become ever more capable of thinking for ourselves.

Your Own Declaration of Intellectual Independence

If you’ve been as inspired by Emerson’s words as I, consider writing your own declaration of intellectual independence. Are you clinging to the ideas of others or held back by a fear of finding your own path? What steps can you take to more fully embrace your life as an independent thinker? I hope you’ll join me in considering those questions this July.

17 Comments on "The American Scholar: A Declaration of Intellectual Independence"

  1. Demetria July 14, 2010 at 10:01 am · Reply

    So glad you’re posting again!

  2. James July 14, 2010 at 1:00 pm · Reply

    I am very very happy you are back Jamie! Keep posting. I always enjoy your texts.

  3. Jim July 14, 2010 at 3:51 pm · Reply

    Jamie,
    What a wonderful surprise to see you writing on this site again. I have missed your thoughtful comments and practical suggestions.

  4. Nicole July 14, 2010 at 6:10 pm · Reply

    Welcome back, you have been missed!

  5. Jamie July 15, 2010 at 1:30 am · Reply

    Thanks, friends. Always nice to be remembered when I return from a break! :o)

  6. Miguel Camalando July 15, 2010 at 4:58 am · Reply

    I am very glad for the first time to be added on your posting list.
    I will make use of your insightful letters and messages, keep them coming.
    Much appreciated.

    Miguel C.

  7. Amiteshwar July 15, 2010 at 11:36 pm · Reply

    Welcome back :)

  8. Julie Carle July 19, 2010 at 9:53 pm · Reply

    Great motivating thoughts Jamie, I may use this site to stimulate more discussions for Bob and Sue in their learning journey as adults returning to Higher Education http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/4103

  9. Meg July 20, 2010 at 11:07 am · Reply

    This was one of the best blog posts I’ve read in awhile. Not just because I love Emerson, but I’ve never felt particularly attracted to The American Scholar speech. I thought “Nature” or “Self-Reliance” more in tune with his concepts … but here, you’ve re-introduced me to the essay and shed light on it in a way I hadn’t thought about before. I also admire how you’ve broken it into actionable steps for the average person to follow, in concise and spirited language. Brava to you! It’s always difficult bringing dead people – especially dead philosophers – to light. Thank you! I shall begin my own intellectual independence; it sounds both exciting and challenging.

  10. Nathalie July 20, 2010 at 5:36 pm · Reply

    This was inspiring! Thank you so much!

  11. brandi July 23, 2010 at 3:53 am · Reply

    New reader here. So glad I found this blog.

  12. Anonymous July 28, 2010 at 4:31 pm · Reply

    Harold Bloom has some interesting pointers relating to poets who struggle to break free of the traditions that inspired them and to find their own (strong) independent voices and thoughts:

    http://prelectur.stanford.edu/lecturers/bloom/excerpts/anxiety.html#ratios

    Despite the fact that poets and scholars are different, perhaps similar principles can be adapted to your ends.

  13. Elevic Pernis August 4, 2010 at 7:57 pm · Reply

    I haven’t read that Emerson speech yet, but I certainly agree with the ideas you’ve mentioned.

  14. Cassandra August 13, 2010 at 9:14 pm · Reply

    I found your blog after you had stopped posting. So when I stumbled across a new post, I was EXCITED. Please keep posting! I’m just starting my self-education.

  15. Allison August 16, 2010 at 6:37 pm · Reply

    What a great post — I’ve just returned from a break myself and spent time “learning from nature” with my 6 year old. Watching (sharing in) her delight as we spent hours on a shoreline was a GIFT all around. Learning / joy of learning before my eyes. Glad you are posting again!

  16. Michael Corayer December 18, 2010 at 11:01 am · Reply

    Glad to see this post. The American Scholar is one of my favorite Emerson works, I find it’s much clearer than some of his other famous works like The Oversoul or Self-Reliance. I would have loved to see him actually give the lecture, but reading the words alone is enough to motivate and inspire me. I highly recommend that everyone read it.

  17. George January 17, 2011 at 4:16 pm · Reply

    The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge.

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